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EPISODE 069 : 07/07/2022

Scott Crabtree

Scott Crabtree is Founder and Chief Happiness Officer at Happy Brain Science, a company helping organizations build happier, more engaged teams with a fun, science-based approach. He offers executive coaching, consulting and speaking engagements for many repeat clients including DreamWorks, Boeing, Intel, and Nike. Scott dedicates himself to the belief that “everyone can be happier at work.”

Host: Ned Hayes
Guest: Scott Crabtree

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Topics discussed in this episode

  • Detailed small business insights from Olympia, Washington
  • Small business resiliency and adaptation during COVID
  • Doubling community outreach during the pandemic
  • Opportunities for small business loyalty programs

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Audio Transcript

Ned Hayes [00:00:01] Welcome to Spark Plug, where we talk to smart people working at the intersection of business and technology. Brought to you by SnowShoe, your smarter loyalty leader. Spark Plug is happy to welcome Scott Crabtree to the podcast today. Scott is the founder and Chief Happiness Officer at Happy Brain Science, a company that helps organization and build happier, more engaged teams with a fun science based approach. Scott offers executive coaching and consulting and speaking engagements for many clients that have notable presence across the globe, including DreamWorks, Boeing, Intel and Nike. He is an experienced software engineer, he’s a technical strategist, and he’s run his own company developing video games as well. So welcome, Scott.

Scott Crabtree [00:00:47] Thank you so much for having me, Ned. 

Ned Hayes [00:00:49] Well, you had a long career in the computer science industry as a software engineer. So did you always know that you wanted to go into the tech world? 

Scott Crabtree [00:00:57] Well, always, since high school, I would say when I was a freshman in high school, I discovered computer programing and video games at the same time and started making games such as Scuba Adventure was my very first video game, a text based scuba adventure game. And from that point on, I was basically hooked on programing, which if you can program and you can talk to people, then you’re made a project manager and a producer and things like that. That became other roles that I took on through the years. 

Ned Hayes [00:01:27] Right. Well, what led you from going from writing code into a science of happiness at work? 

Scott Crabtree [00:01:34] It was almost completely random. I got an undergraduate degree at Vassar College in Cognitive Science, a multi-disciplinary study of the mind and thinking. So I’ve always been intrigued by what makes us tick and not tick so well between the ears. But when I completed that degree, I was like, I need a job. I’m going to get a job writing software expert systems and then video games and ended up at Intel. And one day in Portland, Oregon, my wife walked into Powells bookstore and I said, Well I don’t need anything, but I’ll come in with you. And there was a book turned sideways called The How of Happiness by Professor Sonja Lyubomirsky and so I almost literally bumped into the fact that there was a science of happiness. And I read that book, and it was my introduction to the fact that there are real, well-respected scientists doing real peer reviewed studies about choices we can make to be happier, and that if we act on those choices, our brain fundamentally works better most of the time. And I thought, I want to do this, I want to be this, I want to enjoy all these benefits. And about 3 seconds later, my brain said, You’re not going to do that, Scott. You’re going to forget 98% of this in six months the way we do most things that we learn. How can I not forget this? I asked myself, and I happened to be the kid of two teachers. So I thought, if you really want to learn something, you should teach it. So I started volunteering at conferences with talks like The Science of Happiness and Video Game Development and the Science of Happiness and software development and conferences kept saying yes. So I kept learning as much as I could about the science of happiness, and that experience essentially went viral in a non internet way. I had people stopping me in the hallway going, dude that thing you did a couple of weeks ago. It’s totally changed the way I talk to my team and my teenage daughter and things are much better. Thank you. It’s like, woah, this is satisfying. And companies started asking me if I could come to their companies and present. And I said, for money. I said, yes. And that happened enough times that I was like, You know what? I’m quitting Intel and I’m launching Happy Brain Science. And that was about a decade ago that I went full time. 

Ned Hayes [00:03:44] That’s fascinating. So you’ve given us your intro into the world, the story of founding your company. But if you were pitching us as a client, what’s your elevator pitch? What do you do? 

Scott Crabtree [00:03:56] Life is too short to be unhappy at work. We spend most of our time at work. If you’re a typical adult with a typical schedule, you spend more time at work than anything else you do in your life that you’re conscious. We spend more time with our colleagues than our friends and family, so for too many of us, that time is miserable to one degree or another, and it doesn’t have to be. Not only does it not have to be, this is not really an elevator pitch unless you’re in a very tall skyscraper. Keep in mind, I basically talk for a living, but not only is it enjoyable to be happy, but solid peer reviewed studies suggests we are more creative, productive, resilient. And that’s just the beginning of a long list of benefits that include improved health and longevity. So happiness is very win win for workers and the organizations they work for. So I help people apply the science of thriving at work through speeches, workshops, group and individual coaching. And a card game and a video game that I’m working on. 

Ned Hayes [00:05:00] Let’s talk about that card game. It’s called Choose Happiness at Work, right? 

Scott Crabtree [00:05:04] Yes. 

Ned Hayes [00:05:05] So and it’s also billed as a serious game. So what’s a serious game? And tell us about this game. 

Scott Crabtree [00:05:12] So game designers like me call a game a serious game if its primary intention is something besides fun. So all games should be fun. And I hope and believe in I’ve heard that my game is fun, but the primary point of a serious game is something in addition to fun. So in this case, teaching people about the science of happiness and employee engagement and other related topics that help us thrive at work. It’s also intended to help people learn about each other. So the game is a little bit like apples to apples or dare I bring up cards against humanity? My friend says that my game should be called Cards for Humanity, which it’s not because I don’t like lawsuits, but Choose Happiness at work is a game where people pick problems they want solved and everyone else has a handful of science based solutions and they offer solutions and various winners are picked. And so people learn about the science of well-being at work and each other at the same time. 

Ned Hayes [00:06:09] What do players actually gain when they play this game? I mean, I can see them experiencing it, but what kind of effect does it have on them post gameplay? 

Scott Crabtree [00:06:18] Well, that’s the big question, isn’t it? My hope and intent. And again, what people tell me is they learn things they can actually put into action. So there’s a deck of 50 plus problems at work. These are human related problems, such as intense politics, bad mood. I like my career, but I spend too much time in the office. My manager is simply not available. We don’t meet regularly and time with her is very limited. So a variety of human related problems at work and then over 100 science based solutions. So every one of these hundred cards has a nugget from the science of happiness or thriving at work. So various random examples here: Our name it to tame it, it turns out that if you can describe the emotion you’re having, you’ll get a better handle on that emotion. Your emotional intelligence will improve. That’s one example of many. No device late at night. So you can sleep better because people who are better rested have better moods. Mentoring is in there because so much of the science of happiness is about relationships. For people who want to know more about the science of happiness in one word, according to Daniel Gilbert, Harvard professor, that word would be social. We are social creatures, and a bunch of what we experience, good and bad, comes from the quality of our relationships with other people. There’s much more to it than that. Or I wouldn’t have a living explaining the science of happiness to people. But when people leave this game, they might leave with one or more of these specific actions that they’re going to put into place. So money, turns out, doesn’t make you happy unless you spend it on other people and then it does make you happy. That’s one specific example. Doing your own review is a good technique for learning and growing and reducing the anxiety around performance reviews. 

Ned Hayes [00:08:12] By doing your own like quarterly review or annual review, you’re actually writing up your own stuff. So that actually increases happiness at work. 

Scott Crabtree [00:08:20] Well, it can, yes. One of the things that can stress us out are status inequalities. Any time you’re getting a typical performance review, you’re getting reviewed by someone with power over you, which immediately sets up a stressful situation, which is why so many of us, and certainly you and I, that spent some time at Intel, I would guess I’ve been gone for ten years, but in the days that I was at Intel, focal as we call it, the annual review cycle was a source of enormous stress and unhappiness for a lot of people. When you write your own review, it removes that pressure, that status inequality, and that can be a way of learning and growing without all the stress that comes with a normal performance review. 

Ned Hayes [00:09:01] Got it. Okay. That’s fascinating. I did not realize that. Well, and then you also cite some other research and you mentioned this earlier, that happier brains can be up to 25% more productive. So people who are unhappy are less productive. That’s such a fascinating stat. Can you tell us more about that? 

Scott Crabtree [00:09:19] Absolutely. So there’s some very complex studies here and there’s a range of findings, first of all. So some studies show 12% more productive. Some studies show over 30% more productive. I like to be somewhat conservative. So I tend to say 12 to 25%, which is where most of the studies end up. Fundamentally, happier brains do better work. One way to explain this in the short time we have is that when you’re stressed out or unhappy, your brain goes toward fight or flight. It’s not a switch, it’s a continuum. So to whatever degree your brain is fearful and towards fight or flight, you see three and only three solutions to problems. Fight, flight, aka run or freeze. Because if you shut up and stay still, the mountain lion might not see you and you might get away that way. Great for dealing with mountain lions and not so great for dealing with stressful projects at work. Happier brains are more creative. They see more than three possible solutions. So if you want someone to do their best work, if they’re using their brain at work, happier brains, generally speaking, according to studies, again, they’re more creative, they’re more intuitive, they’re more resilient. They notice more. You will see a straight pixel on your website sooner in a good mood than a bad mood, according to the studies. 

Ned Hayes [00:10:38] Wow. 

Scott Crabtree [00:10:39] You will also find more solutions, more quickly to problems that you encounter. We work better together in a good mood than a bad mood. We bring more energy at work and ultimately happier people are more successful and end up making more money. Now, a lot of people focus on the money to make them happy or they focus on success to make them happy. Science says it works a little bit for a little while. Science suggests that happiness basically puts prime brain real estate online. So your brain does better work because more of your best brain parts are involved in the work you’re doing. 

Ned Hayes [00:11:13] Really fascinating. And if I go into a store where everybody seems pretty joyful, I’m probably going to stay there longer. I’m going to invest more. I’m going to feel like this is a place I want to be, right? 

Scott Crabtree [00:11:23] Absolutely. Social contact has an uplifting effect on our mood for virtually everyone. Now, I know there are introverts listening to this thinking, Oh, fine social contact for you extroverts, but not for us. Well, I mentioned Dr. Sonja Lyubomirsky, the author of The How of Happiness. She’s one of my heroes in the Science of Happiness world does these wonderful peer reviewed experiments. I got the good fortune to have dinner with her at a conference a few years ago, and a colleague at this small dinner said, Sonja, what’s the most exciting research that has not yet been published in a peer reviewed academic journal? And she said that they had found the biggest mood boost yet by telling people to essentially act like an extrovert. What happens when you walk into a retail store and you have an extroverted experience typically, right? People are reaching out and saying hi and you’re connecting in some way. Now, again, introverts might have less energy for that. They might have less appetite for it. But the research suggests that both introverts and extroverts get a serious, in fact, the biggest mood boost they have found so far through social interactions. I read an interview with a scientist one time that toward the end the interviewer said, If you had to boil down all the science of happiness, what would you tell people? And they said, Treat every elevator, ride like an awesome opportunity to connect with people. That brief human connection, even if it’s transactional in a store, even if it’s in an elevator ride, those moment to moment connections we have with each other are a central source of joy and well-being for most people. 

Ned Hayes [00:13:00] So the one piece of advice that we tell our retail customers and clients to keep in mind is you’re creating an experience for people who are coming into a retail store. And that experience matters actually sometimes more than your actual inventory. So what you’re saying is that experience, if it’s a happy experience, is absolutely critical to making the business successful and the data to back it up. 

Scott Crabtree [00:13:22] Absolutely. And it’s win, win, win. There are studies that suggest even if you are faking a good mood, it actually has a positive effect on your mood. So people who work in retail and they’re going in to work with a crummy, mediocre mood, but they’re like, well, got to put on a game face. I’m opening up and I got customers coming in the door. That worker will leave in a better mood because they acted happy for a while. Wow. There is a very active two way street between your face and your brain. It sounds ridiculous, but solid research shows if you smile, you end up happier. If you walk with a spring in, your step can end up happier. Our brain seems to say, Huh? I seem to be happy about something. I’ll produce more dopamine and serotonin to go along with this good mood I seem to have on my face. So they continue to make it as then Harvard professor Amy Cuddy said, Fake it till you make it. Should be fake it till you become it. Now, again, there’s some controversy behind the science we don’t have time for. And most of your listeners are not as nerdy as I am. But suffice it to say that if any listeners know the controversy around Amy Cuddy’s research, there’s a large family of research suggesting that what we do with our body on our face changes the chemistry of our brain. So here’s another of many examples. People who get Botox injections to remove this worry line I have here on my forehead from decades of Olympic level worry feel less anger because they are physically incapable of making an angry, furrowed brow. I’m not advocating Botox injections. I’m giving an example of what we do with our body and our face changes what’s going on inside our brain. So acting happy in a retail environment can make you happier. Acting happy when someone who walks in happiness is literally contagious. Dr. James Fowler, UC San Diego has found three degrees of separation, meaning your friend’s friend’s friend, who you’ve never met, may be impacting your mood. So people operating retail shops can actually make the world a happier place by simply being friendly and connecting with people. 

Ned Hayes [00:15:29] That is fantastic to hear. So I wanted to shift gears a little bit. One thing that we’ve really had our awareness raised on over the last few years is the necessity of actually not just faking it as far as diversity and inclusion in the workplace, but actually creating a work environment that is fully inclusive. So how does being inclusive and being equitable with people who work for you or with you play into happiness at work? 

Scott Crabtree [00:15:55] So some fascinating research here. One of the findings from the peer reviewed science is that happier people seem to be less racially biased, which is startling to me. But this comes from Dr. Barbara Fredrickson, who has a study, the title of which is something like, They all look like us to me. So fascinating study. You bring people into a lab and you randomly divide them into and then you put them in a good mood or a bad mood. That’s typically done with short film clips that are either wonderful or horrible. Right. And then you show people a bunch of pictures of very diverse people. So people who look like you and people who don’t and people in a bad mood don’t recognize people that are more different from them when they come back. The test in the experiment is, have you seen the space before or not? And if a white male like me looks at a black woman in a bad mood and gets that same black woman 32 pictures later in a bad mood, I’m more likely to go. Nope, haven’t seen her in a good mood. I’m like, Oh yeah, I remember her. Dr. Frederickson and her colleagues theorized that happier people have a broader circle of us. Now, being included is obviously essential, right? I mean, one of the craziest things I have learned in a decade of studying and teaching the science of happiness and well-being is that social exclusion is literally painful to the point where taking a Tylenol will make you feel better. So if I got together with a couple of your colleagues and said, Hey, Ned isn’t cool, let’s not talk to Ned anymore, it would literally hurt you and literally taking a Tylenol would make you feel better. We need each other. We need to belong. So much of the science of well-being is am I okay in this group of people? So obviously, if we lack diversity and inclusion, if we lack equity, etc., in a workplace, somebody is in pain. And that pain again is contagious. That unhappiness is contagious. So it hurts everybody. Furthermore, diversity and inclusion is not just the right thing to do. It helps you make better business decisions. I read a wonderful book called Decisive by the Heath Brothers. For those who don’t know, the Heath Brothers are both professors. They write wonderful research based books. And among other things, the book Decisive says We make better decisions when we consider more options. So which team do you think is going to consider more options? A team of all white men or a team that has various genders and races and nationalities included. And if those people can show up and bring their full, authentic self, they are contributing new ideas, new options, new information to decisions on a business will make better decisions because it considered more options because it included more diverse people in the workforce. 

Ned Hayes [00:18:43] So to switch gears a little bit, we’ve had a lot of challenges over the last few years, COVID and cultural upheavals of different types. So what does the science of happiness at work have to say about how we can be successful in confronting challenges? 

Scott Crabtree [00:18:59] Well, first of all, it’s a little late for me to be telling everybody this, but you’re going to do much better off if you go into tough times happier. One of the things that happiness improves is resilience. So if you went into the pandemic quite happy, you bounced back more quickly. But it’s not too late for the next crisis. Which one look at a newspaper will tell you is probably not far away. Right? So working on happiness at any time can help us be ready for tough times. And then again, more than anything else, it’s about connection to other people. We are all literally in this together now. Some have suffered more than others during the pandemic. A bunch of my clients are major video game developers and they have done extremely well during the pandemic, but it’s basically been hard for everyone. And part of why it’s been hard is we’ve lost a lot of that social contact. We have plenty of Zoom meetings like you and I are having video conferencing meetings, but we’re not having that casual chit chat. And again, that casual chitchat can be a major source of well-being. So focusing on the quality of relationships can help a lot. Another thing that can help a lot with tough times is what scientists call flow. Flow to psychologists is that focused state of mind where you’re deeply immersed into something challenging? How am I going to reorganize my store for maximum flow and a flow of customers, etc.? If you can get really deeply focused on some work you’re doing, all those tough things in the world go away for a little while. If you’re focused on something that’s right at the edge of your ability, the problems in the world disappear. Decades of research has shown that flow is extremely helpful for our happiness and well-being at work. New research since the pandemic has shown that flow is especially helpful during tough times like this. I keep only a couple of sticky notes on my desk for myself as reminders. One says Flow first because if I start my day really deeply focused on something challenging but possible for 20 minutes or more, I end up in flow and I have a better day because of it. The other sticky note is related it says “Do less, better.” The world throws us thousands of things that can distract us every day, focusing on what’s most important as crucial to us. Focus completely on something challenging but possible to get into flow. And yes, it is possible for groups of people to get into flow if they’re really focused on something together. They can get into flow. So for me, programing the video game version of Choose Happiness at Work is a time when I end up almost in the code, if you will. If you’ve ever lost track of time and been like, Well, it’s that time already, I got to go. You’ve been in flow extra helpful during extra tough times such as the pandemic. So in addition to focusing on relationships and good self-care, I should mention self-care always important but shocking revelation from the world of neuroscience. Your brain is in your body. Sorry, I’m a dad. I make dad jokes. So when you treat your body well, you treat your brain well. So a lot of us know exercise is good for our body. Only some of us know that exercise is good for cognition. People who walk before a test score higher on the test. People who get exercise get higher grades. Exercise is also excellent for mood. And again, as I mentioned earlier, sleep, even eating fruits and vegetables. Science believes there is a causal connection between eating fruits and vegetables and happiness because the happiness shows up the following day. Every serving of fruits and vegetables you get up to seven will increase your mood the following day. So during the pandemic and tough times, focus on relationships, focus on self-care, excellent self-care, and get into that focused zone we call flow. 

Ned Hayes [00:22:49] Wow, that is great advice, Scott. Thank you. I know people are listening to this. They’re also dealing with different employer demands about work and what will make the employer happy. So some employers like Apple and Google, for example, are requiring that employees return to the office. And other employers in the tech world are saying you can go remote like Meta, Facebook, Lyft, people like that. So how will these policies affect employee happiness? Got any wisdom on that one? 

Scott Crabtree [00:23:18] First of all, everyone is different. So remember that when I cite these studies, studies are averages from large groups of people and you and anybody listening, you’re not an average or unique individual. Every brain in the world is different. Those 86 billion neurons are not configured the same in you and me or somebody listening to this. So experiment with your own life, for starters, right? Some of us love going into the office. Some of us love working remotely. Ideally, we each get to choose. That’s not always possible, depending on company policy, but everything has advantages and disadvantages, right? The advantage of working remotely. The number one advantage that comes to mind for me is it removes commute time. Commuting, especially home from the office, comes out at the bottom of the happiness data. If you do what scientists call experience sampling, that is bing, it’s a random time. What are you doing and how you feel? Commuting is miserable time for us that goes away when you work remotely so great. That’s gone. But also what’s gone is some of that human contact. So I would say the ideal situation is being able to work remotely most of the time, but get plenty of genuine human contact, formal and informal, not only over the phone or video conferencing, but also real life. So if you’re working remotely great, you don’t have to commute. But please connect with other human beings. It’s the central source of happiness for most of us. 

Ned Hayes [00:24:44] Got it. Okay, so connecting really matters. So what do you see businesses doing today to build connections or help employees be happier at work? Are businesses actually listening to your message and are they taking action? 

Scott Crabtree [00:24:59] Absolutely. So at the risk of being an obnoxious, self-promotional name dropper, those companies you mentioned earlier on, many others, the National Park Service, National Council of Nonprofits, Kaiser Permanente, etc. they’re all people who’ve hired me repeatedly or one of my colleagues. So they bring us in to do a workshop, say, on the science of being happy and productive at work. And they were like, That was great. Come back and do that again. So they’re absolutely resonating with the science of happiness. There’s been a big shift in the decade since I went full time here. So when I started early 2012, at that time, I would talk to people about the science of happiness and I’d get a lot of what? Science? Of happiness? And now it’s on the cover of Time magazine and various other places. Most people know there is a science of happiness. So we’re getting there in the corporate world and in the general culture, and more and more organizations recognize the value. So, look, we’re in a shifting world, right? If you are paying people to put together nuts and bolts and that’s all they do for their job, frankly, it doesn’t matter how happy they are, it might work to scare them and yell at them and motivate them that way. But if you want someone to use their brain to get their job done, then that completely backfires. And what data is suggesting is that the happier people are and the more engaged they are, the more successful and productive they are, and the more they will stay. So more and more organizations are recognizing this isn’t just a nice thing to do. This is business critical to make people happy. I mean, there is a war for talent out there right now. Every conference, every client I talk to, they’re focused on hiring, engagement and retention. Engagement helps people stay. Right. So if you want to keep people, you’ve got to engage them. You got to make them happy. Employee engagement and employee happiness are not the same thing, by the way. But if you define happiness the way scientists do, and therefore I do, there’s a lot of overlap. A lot of the things you do to become happy will also help you be engaged. So using your strengths at work as a great example boosts both happiness and engagement. So I see more and more companies being less cynical about happiness at work, less meh about employee engagement, and more focused on, “this is one of the most important things we can do is help our people be happy and engaged at work.” And the wonderful thing part of why I love teaching all of this so much is so much of it is win win. Happier people are more engaged. Engaged workers have better marriages. Now, this is correlational data. Nobody is claiming that the engagement causes a better marriage, but it’s suggested in this very strong correlation. Engaged workers have kids who behave better in school. So this is not just how can employers squeeze more productivity out of employees and make them miserable? No. This is how can employers take such good care of employees that everybody leads better lives and everybody is more successful? It’s a win for the employee. It’s a win for the employer and it’s a win for the customers they serve.

Ned Hayes [00:28:01] Wow! Sorry I keep saying wow in this interview, but this is really eye opening for me about how the science of happiness impacts productivity, impacts retail store experience, and impacts day to day life for professionals across many industries. 

Scott Crabtree [00:28:15] Absolutely. I mean, there’s nothing more important, which is why I want him to work on that full time. 

Ned Hayes [00:28:19] Right. Well, I can totally see your passion for it. So if you could look out 5 to 10 years, where do you see the future of happiness at work and businesses engaging with this science? How do you see that progressing into time? 

Scott Crabtree [00:28:33] Well, my hope is that it becomes almost universal right now. More and more companies are interested. More and more companies are working to keep employees happy and engaged. I think it should be any organization that expects anything from employee brains. That data is clear again that it’s win, win and worthwhile. So there are still some skeptics out there. I hope those skeptics are very few and far between in 5 to 10 years. The other thing I hope we’ll see is continued research. Right, science is not perfect. I ground my work in science because I trust science more than I trust anyone’s opinion. You and I both used to work at Intel. Former CEO of Intel, Andy Grove, had a quote that I heard often in meetings, in hallways at Intel. That quote is, Everyone has an opinion. Some people have data. I hope we’ll continue to see more and more data about what works and doesn’t work. Again, science isn’t perfect. Science is very, very helpful. But science is an ongoing conversation. One study finds one thing, another study finds something slightly different. And then a third study helps integrate and refine that model. So undoubtedly we will learn new things over the next five or ten years, and I hope to be continuing to study that science and help people learn and apply that science. And finally, and perhaps somewhat biased, since I am working on a video game that teaches happiness, I hope some of this will be baked into products and processes going forward. Up until this point most of my work has been talking to people, doing presentations, etc.. I hope software and various other tools and systems will incorporate more of the science of happiness to help scale it up, to help give people happiness boosts when they’re logging into their employee software, when they’re walking into a store, when they’re checking their phone, etc.. Now, remember, human connection is one of the central sources of happiness. So I’m certainly not saying we should just move it all to tech, but I do hope that tech will help us scale the application of the science of happiness and well-being. 

Ned Hayes [00:30:34] What do you think your legacy will be? What would you like to be remembered for? 

Scott Crabtree [00:30:38] You know, I would love it if people said that after I’m gone, Scott Crabtree made the world a happier and a better place. I played one of his games, and not only did I have fun, but I actually learned something that I was able to apply and have a better, happier life for the rest of my life. It’s not really about me Ned, it’s about the science. I consider myself a vehicle, so to speak, a translator. I am nerdy enough and dare I say smart enough to understand scientific studies that people don’t have time to read. And they’re written in this academic jargon. But the scientists are the ones doing the amazing work. I am just here to spread their wisdom in ways people can understand and apply. And if I can help some people do that in my time on this earth and I hope I will have spent my time well. 

Ned Hayes [00:31:26] That seems like a great goal to strive for. 

Scott Crabtree [00:31:27] Thank you for helping me spread the science of happiness. That’s what I’m here to do, and you’re helping me do it. So I appreciate it. Which perhaps is one good tip to end on for people. One of the easiest ways to boost your mood and well-being is to be grateful and to express specific gratitude to people. So tell them what you’re grateful for, exactly. Tell them the emotional difference it made. Tell them the business impact it had and it’ll boost the person you’re expressing gratitude to. It’ll boost you even more. 

Ned Hayes [00:31:57] Well, I’m very grateful to you for your time, so thank you. Spark Plug is a wholly owned property of SnowShoe. All content and copyright 2021 Spark Plug Media.